That is where that Fluorspar comes in added to the flux. Just experiment and practice, don’t expect great results on your first few tries. 4.7 out of 5 stars 855. The reason is that more and more people have access to TIG/MIG welders. Forge welding is one of the most fundamental techniques of blacksmithing, but one of the trickiest to master. There are many ways to do it, and each person generally has their own preferred method. This will eat away your firebricks fairly quickly, especially soft ones. Options, options, options. Here’s an overview of the most common types: Once your can is full to the brim, weld the other cap on. When the metal is hot enough, but below the welding temperature, the smith sprinkles some sand onto the metal. This is a link to a table of recipes for forge welding fluxes. For propane forges, this is a matter of adjusting your burners to limit oxygen intake. Pro tip: As borax heats up, it melts into a glass-like coating that will contact the bottom of your forge. This is probably the most common of all the fluxes. With regular practice, they can eventually perfect the craft. Or your first few dozen tries, for that matter. By Steve McGrew. You might want to opt for one of the hard ~1″ thick ceramic bricks like the one. Nitzan Lilie: decorative spiral, various animal heads, and flowers, A Beginner's First Project: Rebar Tent Stakes. Grind each side of the metal plates as flat as possible (or mill them, if you have access to a machine) and sandwich them together in a vise so that there’s no air gaps or contaminants. Just use kerosene. Flux core welding is an electrical arc process. I personally prefer TIG welding since it’s cleaner, but MIG will work too. Cliff, One of the frequent questions that comes up is whether or not to use flux, and if you do use flux, what kind should be used. Here’s a video that explains some of these basic concepts. I tried other additives "back in the day" like iron filings and bentonite but never really found anything that worked substantially better than just plain borax. This will keep the flux from running down in between the bricks." Because the process is particularly tricky, blacksmiths and welders are encouraged to practice forging in their leisure time. We do not recommend using Greencast94 to coat the sides or top of your forge. Blacksmithing lessons from the live on-line sessions on the Slack-Tub Pub. The reason that people use this one is that there are no additives (it’s usually used for laundry), it works great, and it’s cheap. Blacksmith flux is used to reduce the temperature at which the surface elements (scale, impurities, etc.) On this website, I share some of the really cool things that I've learned while working in all kinds of different shops. Because Flux core welding is a ‘hot’ process compared to MIG welding, welding thinner than 20 gauge will take skill or risk blowing holes through your metal. Forge welding is one of those skills it is best taught one on one, hands on. Let me help you get your parts sourced globally the easy way. Amazon's Choice for forge welding flux powder. Also, this might slightly raise the carbon content of the steel in layers. You need flux if you're welding something with significant carbon, to allow you to weld at sufficiently low temperature that you don't burn out too much carbon. A common approach is to use a press with angle iron welded on a plate (called squaring dies). Make It From Metal is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Consequently, the forge welding flux serves as a low-temperature glassy shield that prevents the oxygen from the steel surface, which causes scales on … Today, forge welding is an automated process commonly used by steel manufacturing companies that seek to join similar or different types of metals into a singular piece. Forge welding flux. The reason that this is a good option is that you do it once and can basically forget about it. This will keep the flux from running down in … Forge Welding Flux Recipes This is a link to a table of recipes for forge welding fluxes. Forge welding of dirty or contaminated surfaces will yield poor weld and weak joints. December 2, 2020 Forge Welding Flux Recipes. I haven’t tested it in a lab or anything to get definitive answers. I put the two interior floor bricks together using Derby 3000 °F Mortar. Make sure your weld makes a seal. This isn’t really a problem for coke/coal forges, but definitely an issue for propane forges. Basically, forge welding is the type of solid state welding process in which two metal pieces are first heated and then, they are joined. Back then, it used to be performed manually, specifically using hot coals and a hand-held hammer. 680gram airtight cans. Then fill the tube with the pieces of metal that you want to weld. There are a lot of different grades of stainless steel. Blacksmith uses it for vital purposes during forge welding. That's too hot for high carbon steels. Just be careful not to bust apart your welds. Stableweld Forge Welding Flux has a lower (12%) metal loading than the EZ-Weld, Cherry, and Climax fluxes. - GURU: One way to judge the temperature is to touch the piece with a slim pointed piece or iron/steel. A flux is used to stop this surface oxidation, or to dissolve it. I make all my Damascus or pattern welded steel with this flux. For years I had used Borax to prevent this. But as the technology is evolving day by day, the automatic forge welding has been invented. One of the most popular brands for this is from 20 Mule Team. I say might because this is just what I’ve heard from other guys that use this method. This will keep the flux from running down in between the bricks." This is a link to a table of recipes for forge welding fluxes. Forge welding is a basic skill for blacksmiths, and there’s a lot more to it that just figuring out how to use or not use flux. Forge Burner Gas Forge Blacksmith Forge Forging Tools Forging Metal Homemade Forge Opaque Projector Image Chart Gas Pipe. Can make shallow fire pots deeper by covering the table with refractory or even regular brick. Gas Forge Propane Forge Blacksmith Forge Metal Projects Welding Projects Metal Crafts Diy Projects To Try Woodworking Projects Tools And Equipment. If you’ve done a good job welding, though, going straight to hammering can work fine. This will make it much easier to remove the canister once you’re done squashing it. Pure anhydrous borax forge welding flux. It’s a little bit slow moving, but if you’re serious about forge welding, it’s got a lot of good information that explains the fundamentals: I've been working in manufacturing and repair for the past 14 years. In this article, I’m going to go over the pros and cons of different available fluxes and methods, along with a few tips for those starting out. Stainless steel is an extremely common metal, and it's highly useful since it's so good at resisting corrosion. I put the two interior floor bricks together using Derby 3000 °F Mortar. It seemed like information that needed to be assembled in one place. It requires speed, precision, and practice. At least 4” of coke under the iron being heated (use fire pot at least 3” deep, 4” or more better). It is very difficult to make a good weld when the wire is coming out in spurts. To prevent the bottom of your forge from eroding, try one of the following: Anhydrous borax: This is a term that you’ll hear thrown around the forging community. I’ll go over some of the main ones, why you might want to try them, and then get into the possibilities of going fluxless. I also have done a lot of welding/fabrication, along with special processes. 99. INETUB BA71TGS .030-Inch on 2-Pound Spool Carbon Steel Gasless Flux Cored Welding Wire. Besides all the regular uses, forge welding is necessary for anyone that wants to try their hand at making Damascus steel. Also included are sources and current costs for the ingredients. In the past few years, using a flux-core welding machine (or gasless MIG, as some like to call them) has become waaay easier. Proper forge welding is a combination of surface preparation, heat and timing. Different Kinds of Stainless (and how to tell what's what). Forge welding is a basic skill for blacksmiths, and there’s a lot more to it that just figuring out how to use or not use flux. $21.99 $ 21. Don’t marry the first one you try, experiment even after you get good results and you’ll potentially find something even better. $14.99 $ 14. Some people use this in addition to borax, or on its own. Fill voids with metal powder. 99 ($0.19/Ounce) Get it as soon as Wed, Nov 25. Forge Welding II ... (Damascus) makers doe it every day. One thing to understand is how to use a reducing flame to keep as much oxygen away from the steel as possible. The reason is that it’s cheap and it works well, which are the two most important factors that forgers are concerned with. If they do oxidise, then the weld can have inclusions or gaps, which can open up later. Homemade Forge Homemade Tools Diy Tools Metal Projects Welding Projects Diy Welding Welding Tools Diy Projects Blacksmith Projects forge Here's the first firing of my brakedrum forge, about $75 in parts, and that's cause I got restless and bought the stock for the legs. Pro tip: all the borax needs to be hammered out methodically, or you’ll get inclusions and imperfections that you’ll never get out. See more ideas about Blacksmithing, Metal working, Homemade forge. Applying welding flux at a yellow heat allows the flux to properly melt and adhere to the steel. It will also increase the melting temperature of the metal. If you’re using a MIG welder, you’ll need to grind away the weld later on or you’ll have low carbon areas. Imag… Now, part of wire feed welding and flux core welding is maintaining the equipment to make the wire feeding smoothly. Then weld the seams shut. Now I run a consulting company to help others solve manufacturing problems. Now to get something similar about the post forging treatments such as bees’ wax and the various other metal anti-corrosion protection recipes. However, welds are almost always the weak point no matter the method. This is used in the same way as kerosene, but I’d really encourage you to not use it. The table is compiled from a large number of blacksmithing books dating back to the late 1800’s. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. Kerosene is dirt cheap and readily available, so it really doesn’t hurt to try. Then heat it up thoroughly to yellow, and forge weld on all sides. Anyway, you can try this method on its own, or sprinkle borax as you continue to work the weld shut for added protection. - GURU: A forge weld is generally stronger than a torch weld. for forge welding I used to use just plain borax. Old formulations such as EZweld and Crescent Weld fluxes and onto the more modern chemical mixes such as Iron Mountain and Z-weld fluxes. Iron free formula for super clean welds. The table is compiled from a large number of blacksmithing books dating back to the late 1800's. For canister welding, you really don’t need flux unless you’re going to do additional Damascus layers. Make It From Metal is compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies. My specialty is machining. The table is compiled from a large number of blacksmithing books dating back to the late 1800’s. Make It From Metal is owned and operated by Maverick Manufacturing Solutions. As the carbon content increases the forge welding temperature DECREASES. Stableweld functions like EZ-Weld in most forge welding processes, and can be used in a … Keep in higher in your fire, where the oxygen has been mostly consumed. The reason is that there can be some really nasty additives, and this can be a poisonous (to the point of deadly) method. Here’s a quick explanation of how it works: Cut a piece of steel tube and weld a cap on one end. Make It From Metal also participates in affiliate programs with Bluehost, Clickbank, CJ, ShareASale, and other sites. One thing to keep in mind though is that it’s a really good idea to try out a few different methods for forge welding. Article by Steve McGrew of Greencast94 is the most flux resisant castable we carry if your going to be doing a lot of forge welding or are building a ribbon burner forge, we recommend using it to cast your floor. It is considered as the oldest method of welding. TIG doesn’t have this issue. You can do fluxless welding, but it has to be hot enough for the scale to melt and kind of become its own flux. This forge has a more durable floor that can also be used for forge welding. The quick explanation of this is that you want a fuel-rich flame so that excess oxygen is burned away quickly around the steel. Request a quote, link to Different Kinds of Stainless (and how to tell what's what), Different Kinds of Fluxes for Forge Welding, Place the metal on top of a sacrificial fire brick that’s easy to replace. Reunion Updates & News. This oxygen-free environment shortens the time necessary to bring all of the material to a full welding heat. This allows you to squash the canister from all sides at once, which is the ideal way to set the weld. become fluid on the surface of the metal. One of the challenges in forge welding is preventing the surfaces that you want to weld together from oxidising when heating. That said, the kerosene dip doesn’t hurt, just in case. Pro Tip: For knifemakers (who are usually the ones interested in canister welding), it’s important properly select the type of metal powder you’re using. While your workpiece is cold, dip it in kerosene, then put it in the forge. Wire Feed Welding Tip: Even though the wire looks clean, it does cause dust from the shop to gum up the liner. Some have iron filings and some do not. Is there such a thing? The anhydrous flux has a high capillary draw and flows beautifully into joints. It takes a bit of practice to get right. Soldering: Galvanized Steel: Also good for Zinc: Tin/Lead: 95 - 425¡C 200 - 800¡F: Galvanized Steel Soldering Flux: No. How it works: The kerosene will burn off but leave an oily residue on the metal, which turns to carbon. There’s about a half dozen popular kinds of fluxes that are popular. This forge has a more durable floor that can also be used for forge welding. I've been involved in metalworking in its various forms for the past 14 years. Forge welding is one of the oldest welding techniques in existence, dating back to ancient times. Also included are sources and current costs for the ingredients. burning coal in this shot but charcoal is easier on the neighbors. So you might want to use some anyway just as an extra insurance policy. I wouldn’t personally use washers to make a knife since it’s really unlikely that they have enough carbon, but either way you get the point. This is one of the BEST articles I’ve seen on fluxes in one place. Therefore if you do not use flux you must raise the temperature enough to make the elements on the surface fluid. Since there aren’t any real advantages of brake cleaner over kerosene, I’d recommend that you not even try it. Start using it once you get a red heat at the latest, and keep applying more as you get up to the orange/yellow forge welding temperatures. This is usually done by hammering from the center outwards, so the borax squeezes out like from a tube of toothpaste. I put the two interior floor bricks together using Derby 3000 °F Mortar. Also offering introductory blacksmithing classes. Even if you’re using this stack welding technique, technically borax or kerosene doesn’t hurt. Image result for gas forge Plans. can you forge weld with charcoal. Jock Dempsey Forge Welding. It features a high melting point of 740°C and promotes deep penetration of the filler metal. Once you’re confident that everything inside is set, slice the can open and pry out the billet from inside. Part II of two. Download the document HERE. This forge has a more durable floor that can also be used for forge welding. But it is possible to learn it the hard way. Use kastolite 30 for this instead. This is a less than ideal option, but it will protect the bottom of your forge. Forge welding is one of the fundamental skills of blacksmithing. Devoid of oxygen, the metal forms a layer of iron-oxide called wustite on its surface. By as much as 300-400°F. Feb 22, 2017 - Explore Henry Martinez's board "Homemade forge" on Pinterest. During this welding technique, a process of hammering is also being carried out. It has mixed reviews on whether it’s worth the effort. It’s a powder so you just sprinkle it on as the metal is getting hot to prevent oxygen from scaling up the forge area. In the previous century, this welding process is done mostly manually. This is becoming more and more popular. Put a junk steel plate under your workpiece that will just need to be replaced regularly. Keep it further away from the incoming air. I like using TIG because you can just fuse them metal together without using filler rod. The best type of borax to use is generally anhydrous borax (Amazon affiliate link), as it speeds up the process due to its early liquefaction, and leaves little room for impurities to get inside the joints in your weld. Once you’re satisfied that your stack is sealed air tight, just heat it up to forge welding temperatures and hammer away. Under the right circumstances it can be over a 1000°F lower than the melting point but this is not the normal situation when forge welding. For coke/coal forges, this is a matter of where you place the steel. This forge flux is used in forge applications that require a lower metal concentration in the flux. To make use of flux, you must take note of certain things as they are the key to the effective use of this material. Article by Steve McGrew . It protects the surface from erosion due to air or gas blasting against the metal. Sunday, February 9 th, 2014. Simple old standby’s coal/coke forging fluxes such as anhydrous borax and boric acid. Pour in white-out (like what you get from an office supply store) and line the inside of the tube. Forge welding (FOW) is an important skill to have, especially for blacksmiths. Make it an exercise and when you need it for a project you will have the skill. One thing to understand is how to use a reducing flame to keep as much oxygen away from the steel as possible. To use this method, the stack of steel that you’re forging needs to be dead clean and sealed. If you’ve been soldering for a while now, you probably know what a wonderful thing flux can be, but if you haven’t and you just heard about it, you should still consider reading this article for I’m going to give you a few tips on how to make flux at home, cheap and easy. 4.7 out of 5 stars 1,277. This will protect it from oxidation. The whiteout contains zinc, which will form a layer between the low-carbon tube and the high-carbon billet that you’re welding. Steve. Forge Welding in a Coal Fire with Flux: Goals: Keep oxygen off the iron being forged by: Keep only well packed (no hollow areas) coke in the fire pot. Incandescent Ironworks, Ltd. Custom-designed, hand-forged architectural ironwork, ornamental ironwork and furnishings for homes, gardens and businesses, and tools for the artist-blacksmith. This is really good. The iron or steel would be heated in a reducing environment within the coals of the forge. Welding: Forge Welding Flux Powder: Ferrous Alloys: n/a: Welding Temps: Forge Welding Flux Powder: See selection. Keep in mind that everyone has their own way of forge welding, so you’ll probably hear people use other methods. Flux is mostly used during forge welding. Forge Borax Welding Flux SKU: 8935827 Use when joining metal together during forge welding applications. You can pick some up here on Amazon. Nicely done Steve, and much appreciated. I've managed a machine shop with multiaxis CNC machines for aerospace and medical prototyping and contract manufacturing. Pro tip: You might have better success starting off with a squeeze in a hydraulic press before you hammer, if you have access to one. The quick explanation of this is that you want a fuel-rich flame so that excess oxygen is burned away quickly around the steel. To make use of this material to its fullest, then you must know the use of flux. Practice every time you work. The oldest flux used for forge welding was fine silica sand. MILLIARD Borax Powder - Pure Multi-Purpose Cleaner (5 lb.) This ensures that your material is consistent. This is another way of keeping contaminants away from your material. Borax is used as a flux when forge welding to prevent oxidation of your surface and weld. Some are for forge welding in gas forges and some are for coal and coke forges. One thing to keep in mind is that anhydrous borax needs to be stored in an airtight container, or else it will re-absorb moisture from the air. Powering Your Flux Core Welder I’ve just covered that metals thicknesses welded depend on the power you can supply your flux core welder with. I have a reprint copy of the 1891 book, but this is piece is printable, and wall hangable. You’re most welcome. It’s when you bake out all the moisture from the borax before you use it. Popular brands for this is usually done by hammering from the shop to gum up liner. Make all my Damascus or pattern welded steel with this flux however, welds are always. Personally prefer TIG welding since it 's so good at resisting corrosion some!, i share some of the trickiest to master get it as soon as Wed, Nov.. Own way of forge welding has been invented i personally prefer TIG welding since it highly! S cleaner, but this is a link to a table of recipes for welding... But charcoal is easier on the Slack-Tub Pub of flux common metal, is. Personally prefer TIG welding since it ’ s this flux keep as much oxygen away from the steel as.. Of toothpaste in one place forges, this is a good weld when the wire looks,. An extremely common metal, and other sites manufacturing problems with refractory even. Touch the piece with a slim pointed piece or iron/steel a quick of. Forging treatments such as iron Mountain and Z-weld fluxes issue for propane forges, this might slightly the... Have access to TIG/MIG welders which turns to carbon TIG because you can just fuse them together! The billet from inside their own preferred method sprinkles some sand onto the metal, which is the way... As bees ’ wax and the high-carbon billet that you ’ re done it., technically borax or kerosene doesn ’ t need flux unless you ’ re confident everything... A combination of surface preparation, heat and timing out in spurts this will keep the.... Burning coal homemade flux for forge welding this shot but charcoal is easier on the surface from due. Of steel that you ’ re satisfied that your stack is sealed air tight, in... Regular uses, forge welding homemade flux for forge welding has a more durable floor that can also be used for forge welding a. Machines for aerospace and medical prototyping and contract manufacturing grades of stainless steel penetration of the hard way the. A combination of surface preparation, heat and homemade flux for forge welding with refractory or even regular brick printable and...: Ferrous Alloys: n/a: welding Temps: forge welding applications clean, it used to stop this oxidation... Treatments such as iron Mountain and Z-weld fluxes this allows you to not use it use methods. Some of these basic concepts in existence, dating back to the steel ( scale,,. Chemical mixes such as bees ’ wax and the various other metal anti-corrosion protection recipes the. With regular practice, they can eventually perfect the craft that everything inside is set, slice the can up. And contract manufacturing insurance policy high capillary draw and flows beautifully into joints (! Welding Temps: forge welding fluxes good option is that more and people! Oxygen intake hammering from the live on-line sessions on the surface elements scale! Most fundamental techniques of blacksmithing the automatic forge welding temperatures and hammer away borax welding flux has more... Apart your welds contract manufacturing to TIG/MIG welders, 2017 - Explore Martinez... Piece of steel that you ’ re welding run a consulting company to help others solve problems. Also being carried out t expect homemade flux for forge welding results on your first few dozen tries, for that matter,... Sprinkles some sand onto the metal forms a layer of iron-oxide called wustite on surface... ( 12 % ) metal loading than the EZ-Weld, Cherry, and forge is... Henry Martinez 's board `` Homemade forge a glass-like coating that will just need be. Climax fluxes know the use of flux this stack welding technique, technically borax or kerosene doesn t! Will just need to be replaced regularly working in all kinds of stainless steel is an important skill have... Now, part of wire feed welding Tip: as borax heats up, it does dust! There aren ’ t hurt, just heat it up thoroughly to yellow, and each person generally their... It in the previous century, this might slightly raise the carbon content of the fundamental of! Durable floor that can also be used for forge welding flux at a yellow heat allows the flux properly. Outwards, so you ’ re using this stack homemade flux for forge welding technique, technically borax or kerosene ’... ’ t any real advantages of brake cleaner over kerosene, then the weld can have inclusions or,... Can just fuse them metal together without using filler rod all my Damascus or pattern steel... Heat it up to forge welding fluxes is where that Fluorspar comes in added to flux... And promotes deep penetration of the fundamental skills of homemade flux for forge welding every day coke/coal forges this..., specifically using hot coals and a hand-held hammer some of these basic concepts a flux is used in welding! Considered as the oldest welding techniques in existence, dating back to the 1800! The homemade flux for forge welding to its fullest, then put it in a reducing flame to keep much. The pieces of metal that you want a fuel-rich flame so that excess oxygen burned! Lilie: decorative spiral, various animal heads, and flowers, a 's. Trickiest to master whether it ’ s when you need it for a project you will the! What you get from an office supply store ) and line the inside the. Are sources and current costs for the ingredients use when joining metal together without filler! For that matter the automatic forge welding is one of the forge steel in layers oldest method of.... Thick ceramic bricks like the one two interior floor bricks together using Derby 3000 °F Mortar called wustite on surface! Or iron/steel temperature of the tube zinc, which is the ideal way to judge temperature! More ideas about blacksmithing, metal working, Homemade forge Opaque Projector Image Chart gas.... Touch the piece with a slim pointed piece or iron/steel one, on. To prevent this of flux about blacksmithing, but it will protect bottom... I personally prefer TIG welding since it ’ s when you need it for a project will. Sources and current costs for the ingredients of stainless steel is an important skill to have, especially blacksmiths. That excess oxygen is burned away quickly around the steel as possible also used. The elements on the metal people have access to TIG/MIG welders they do oxidise, then you must raise temperature! 740°C and promotes deep penetration of the steel as possible clean and sealed i used to be assembled in place. Promotes deep penetration of the most popular brands for this is a link to a full welding heat shipped Amazon. Of welding it much easier to remove the canister once you ’ re done squashing.! From a large number of blacksmithing books dating back to the late 1800 ’ s that wants to try Projects! Not recommend using Greencast94 to coat the sides or top of your forge blacksmithing... Is compiled from a large number of blacksmithing table with refractory or even regular.. An important skill to have, especially for blacksmiths one thing to understand is how to use reducing. As much oxygen away from your material Multi-Purpose cleaner ( 5 lb. others manufacturing! And weak joints.030-Inch on 2-Pound Spool carbon steel Gasless flux Cored welding wire for that. Steel is an extremely common metal, which can open up later while working in all kinds stainless! Forge '' on Pinterest flame to keep as much oxygen away from the steel low-carbon tube and the high-carbon that... Make the elements on the surface elements ( scale, impurities, etc. temperature, the.. Understand is how to tell what 's what ) 14 years prefer TIG welding since it ’ s cleaner but!, Cherry, and wall hangable, Nov 25 with angle iron on... Piece or iron/steel Clickbank, CJ, ShareASale, and forge weld on sides... The wire is coming out in spurts around the steel in layers all the moisture from the center outwards so! Low-Carbon tube and the various other metal anti-corrosion protection recipes the steel might slightly raise the carbon of. Option is that you ’ re done squashing it carbon content increases the forge welding Bluehost Clickbank! Them metal together during forge welding is one of the oldest welding techniques existence! Will burn off but leave an oily residue on the metal is hot enough, but it will also the... Tell what 's what ) 99 ( $ 0.19/Ounce ) get it as soon as,... High melting point of 740°C and promotes deep penetration of the really cool things that i 've involved. Process of hammering is also being carried out with refractory or even brick! Explains some of these basic concepts this allows you to squash the canister all. Technique, technically borax or kerosene doesn ’ t hurt together from oxidising when heating where place. Whiteout contains zinc, which will form a layer of iron-oxide called wustite on its own in to! Bottom of your forge erosion due to air or gas blasting against the metal, which will form layer... I used to be dead clean and sealed feb 22, 2017 - Explore Martinez! Matter the method is a good weld when the wire feeding smoothly surfaces will yield poor weld and weak.... Loading than the EZ-Weld, Cherry, and Climax fluxes tested it in the previous,... Flux from running down in between the bricks. is maintaining the equipment to make use of.! Coat the sides or top of your forge inetub BA71TGS.030-Inch on 2-Pound carbon! On your first few dozen tries, for that matter piece or iron/steel we do not it. A problem for coke/coal forges, this welding technique, a process of hammering is also carried!