Wallenstein feared losing his northern German gains to a Danish-Swedish alliance, while Christian IV had suffered another defeat in the Battle of Wolgast (1628); both were ready to negotiate. As no satisfactory agreement could be reached between the followers of Catholicism and Protestantism, a feeling of bit­terness continued to persist between them which ultimately culminated in the Thirty Years’ War. There, they captured many valuable treasures, including the Codex Gigas, which contains the Vulgate Bible as well as many historical documents all written in Latin, and is still today preserved in Stockholm as the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were also abolished, and a degree of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine. Ferdinand II: Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, whose aim, as a zealous Catholic, was to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the empire and suppress Protestantism, and whose actions helped precipitate the Thirty Years’ War. This period, known as the Thirty Years’ War, began with a religious dispute. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, ended the war between German Lutherans and Catholics. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. Overview of Blood & the Cardiovascular System, Electrolyte, Water & pH Balance in the Body, Sexual Reproduction & the Reproductive System, Accessory Organs of the Gastrointestinal System. The three treaties involved were the Peace of Münster (between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain), the Treaty of Münster (between the Holy Roman Emperor and France and their respective allies), and the Treaty of Osnabrück (between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden and their respective allies). Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war. The so-called Defenestration of Prague provoked open revolt in Bohemia, which had powerful foreign allies. imaginable degree, area of Blues indicate Catholic regions and red/orange indicate Protestant (including Lutheran, Calvinist, Hussite, and Reform). In closing, the Thirty Years' War was not one war, per se, but a series of conflicts fought between the great continental powers of seventeenth-century Europe. Wallenstein lacked a fleet, and neither the Hanseatic ports nor the Poles would allow the building of an imperial fleet on the Baltic coast. After his death, the imperial Catholic forces began to claw back lost territory and in 1635 concluded a peace with the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire. The continental conflict arose out of political and religious issues in the Holy Roman Empire and Europe as a whole, and its conclusion in 1648 changed the face of European politics. The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. After the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed by Ferdinand II, the Danish king, Christian IV, fearing that recent Catholic successes threatened his sovereignty as a Protestant nation, led troops against Ferdinand. The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors (Vilem Slavata of Chlum and Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice) as his representatives to Hradčany castle in Prague in May 1618. France, though Roman Catholic, was a rival of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain because they considered the Habsburgs too powerful since they held a number of territories on France’s eastern border. Summary "One of the most momentous and destructive wars in European history, the Thirty Years War has long been studied for its diplomatic, political, and military consequences. Moreover, neither of the substantial British contingents arrived in time to prevent Wallenstein’s defeat of Mansfeld’s army at the Battle of Dessau Bridge (1626) or Tilly’s victory at the Battle of Lutter (1626). Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Not sure what college you want to attend yet? In 1618 the Calvinists revolted, famously by first throwing some of Ferdinand's Catholic advisers out a church window in Prague, an event which became known as the Defenestration of Prague. The treaty did not entirely end conflicts arising out of the Thirty Years’ War. An error occurred trying to load this video. Moravia was already embroiled in a conflict between Catholics and Protestants. Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden. After the Defenestration of Prague and the ensuing Bohemian Revolt, the Protestants warred with the Catholic League until the former were firmly defeated at the Battle of Stadtlohn in 1623. You can test out of the In 1618, Ferdinand’s royal representatives were thrown out of a window and seriously injured in the so-called Defenestration of Prague, which provoked open Protestant revolt in Bohemia. The Thirty Years' War was a major conflict that occurred in Europe from1618 to1648. When Arras fell, the way was opened for the French to take all of Flanders. Ferdinand II may have feared that Wallenstein would switch sides, and arranged for his arrest after removing him from command. Richelieu had already begun intervening indirectly in the war in January 1631, when the French diplomat Hercule de Charnacé signed the Treaty of Bärwalde with Gustavus Adolphus, by which France agreed to support the Swedes with 1,000,000 livres each year in return for a Swedish promise to maintain an army in Germany against the Habsburgs. Appendixes: A chronology of the era of the Thirty Years War (1608-1650) Questions for consideration. The same year, the Protestant forces, lacking Gustav’s leadership, were smashed at the First Battle of Nördlingen by the Spanish-Imperial forces commanded by Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand. Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630. The general Hans Christoff von Königsmarck, commanding Sweden’s flying column, entered the city and captured Prague Castle (where the event that triggered the war—the Defenestration of Prague—had taken place thirty years before). Soon afterward, the Bohemian conflict spread through all of the Bohemian Crown, including Bohemia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, and Moravia. With news of the outcome reaching Frederick V of the Palatinate, the king was forced to sign an armistice with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, thus ending the “Palatine Phase” of the Thirty Years’ War. In addition, the Swedish army took 5,000 prisoners and seized forty-six guns, at a cost to themselves of 4,000 killed or wounded. However, an imperial army led by Octavio Piccolomini managed to check the Franco-Swedish army in Bavaria, though their position remained fragile. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can bring about famine and spell disaster for civilians. The Swedes scored several victories in the northern and central parts of the Empire, led by their King Gustavus Adolphus, until he died in battle in 1632. You must be certain that you do not confuse these two events. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Why was the Peace of Westphalia important? From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. Protestants in Bohemia were wary of Ferdinand reversing the religious tolerance and freedom formerly established by the Peace of Augsburg. The battle enabled Sweden to occupy Saxony and impressed on Ferdinand III the need to include Sweden, and not only France, in any peace negotiations. Wallenstein’s army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg, Pomerania, and Jutland itself, but proved unable to take the Danish capital, Copenhagen, on the island of Zealand. Although he was killed in action, his armies successfully defeated their enemies and gave birth to the Swedish Empire after proving their ability in combat. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Ferdinand II’s suspicion of Wallenstein resumed in 1633, when Wallenstein attempted to arbitrate the differences between the Catholic and Protestant sides. Describe the events surrounding the Defenestration of Prague. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire. The treaty also stipulated that Sweden would not conclude a peace with the Holy Roman Emperor without first receiving France’s approval. Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. Wallenstein marched to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. In the Second Battle of Breitenfeld, in 1642, outside Leipzig, the Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson defeated an army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. Subjects, citizens, or residents who did not wish to conform to a prince’s choice were given a period in which they were free to emigrate to different regions in which their desired religion had been accepted. The severity of discipline was not the only change that took place in the army. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. Only the port of Stralsund continued to hold out against Wallenstein and the emperor, having been bolstered by Scottish “volunteers” who arrived from the Swedish army to support their countrymen already there in the service of Denmark. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. By the end of the war, the shape of Europe had been greatly changed. The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel—some converted bishops refused to give up their bishoprics, and certain Habsburg and other Catholic rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain sought to restore the power of Catholicism in the region. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} One occurs in the first half of the 17th century and the other in the middle of the 18th century. The Peace established the principle Cuius regio, eius religio (“Whose realm, his religion”), which allowed Holy Roman Empire state princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states. Though the Bohemians and their Protestant allies were defeated, fighting began again in 1625 with Denmark's invasion of the Holy Roman Empire on behalf of the Protestant state of Saxony, which the Danish King Christian IV feared might fall to the Catholic states that encircled it. Initially after the Peace of Prague, the Swedish armies were pushed back by the reinforced imperial army north into Germany. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg had settled religious disputes in the Holy Roman Empire by enshrining the principle of Cuius regio, eius religio, allowing a prince to determine the religion of his subjects. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). Denmark’s King Christian IV had obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. Remarkably, though injured, they survived. Defenestration of Prague: A later woodcut of the Defenestration of Prague in 1618, which triggered the Thirty Years’ War. Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The Treaty of Prague angered the French, who quickly realized the Treaty strengthened Hapsburg control over the entirety of the Holy Roman Empire; it was the exact antithesis of the stated French goals for entering the war. Painting by Grisaille by Adrian van de Venne, 1643. The new European power would last for a hundred years before being overwhelmed by numerous enemies in the Great Northern War. Through a wide variety of key documents—most of which appear in English for the first time here—this sourcebook reveals the origins, significance, and consequences of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), the first great, and catastrophic, pan-European conflict. Gustavus Adolphus knew that Wallenstein was waiting for the attack and was prepared, but found no other option. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. After the second defeat of the Puritans, the Lutheran King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden jumped … Minorities of each creed existed almost everywhere, however. 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General Practice Doctors, Medical Illustrator Education and Training Program Information, Ambulatory Systems Architect Definition Salary, Crm Application Architect Job Description Salary Requirements, The Thirty Years' War & the Peace of Westphalia: Summary & Significance, Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1648-1715), Power Shifts in Eastern Europe (1648-1740), Empire and Expansion in the 18th Century (1700-1799), The Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment (1500-1790), The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte (1780-1815), Imperialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Test Prep & Practice, Praxis World & U.S. History - Content Knowledge (5941): Practice & Study Guide, High School World History: Help and Review, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, Comparing and Contrasting Political Ideologies & Movements: Essay Prompts, Mastering the Short Answer Question Section (Section I: Part B), What is a Megaron? http://www.tomrichey.netThe Thirty Years' War was fought from 1618-1648 (Thirty Years!) The Danes were defeated several times in Germany and in their own territory and retreated to the Danish islands where Wallenstein, who was without a fleet, could not reach the Danish forces. The war soon developed into a devastating struggle for the balance of power in Europe. General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. This became known as the first battle in the Thirty Years’ War. France came out of the war in a far better position than any of the other participants. Soldiers were to be rewarded for meritorious service. The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples, and the Protestant states banded together to revolt against him. These collective agreements became known as the Peace of Westphalia. 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