Hiroshima The Legal Status of Local Government 2. Gifu This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:21. Which of the following allows national governments the right to alter or even abolish local government? The new government in power, however, decides to hand over the rights to conduct elections to the state governments in the country in order to ensure better representation and participation. The capital of the former Japanese administration is not necessarily the capital of the present-day equivalent. 19.  As of August 2012[update], this plan was abandoned. That term occurs also in otherwise styled offices, such as the head of a congregation or department of the Roman Curia. 44. Miyazaki From 1836 until 2011, modern Greece was divided into nomoi (Greek: νομοί, singular νομός, nomos) which formed the country's main administrative units. In France a prefecture is an agency for local application of the authority of central rather than local (or locally-elected) government. 29. 14. In 1943, Tokyo City was abolished, Tōkyō-fu became Tōkyō-to, and Tokyo's 35 wards remained Tokyo's 35 wards, submunicipal authorities falling directly under the municipality, but since the municipality was abolished, Tokyo's wards fell directly under prefectural or now "Metropolitan" authority. In Osaka, several prominent politicians led by Tōru Hashimoto, then mayor of Osaka City and former governor of Osaka Prefecture, proposed an Osaka Metropolis plan, under which Osaka City, and possibly other neighboring cities, would be replaced by special wards similar to Tokyo's. In Brazil, the prefecture (prefeitura or prefeitura municipal in Portuguese) is the executive branch of the government of each Brazilian municipality (município in Portuguese). Later, in 1871, the government designated Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto as fu, and relegated the other fu to the status of ken. Which of the following allows national governments the right to alter or even abolish local government? Japan is divided into 47 prefectures (Japanese: 都道府県, todōfuken, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]), forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. The prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. Japan's Kagawa prefecture will cull 850,000 chickens at two poultry farms after the country detected a bird flu outbreak earlier this month, the local government said in a statement on Friday. The term also refers to the office of the mayor (prefeito in Portuguese). Before World War II, different laws applied to fu and ken, but this distinction was abolished after the war, and the two types of prefecture are now functionally the same. The postwar reforms also changed the map of Tokyo significantly: In 1947, the 35 wards were reorganized into the 23 special wards, because many of its citizens had either died during the war, left the city, or been drafted and did not return. Today, in turn, Japan uses its word ken (県), meaning "prefecture", to identify Portuguese districts while in Brazil the word "Prefeitura" is used to refer to a city hall. Each prefecture's chief executive is a directly elected governor (知事, chiji). Learn more. The subnational governments are sometimes collectively referred to as todōfuken (都道府県, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]) in Japanese, which is a combination of the four terms. Saitama This term was originally used to refer to Japanese regions consisting of several provinces (e.g. In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures (urban -fu and rural -ken) to replace the urban and rural administrators (bugyō, daikan, etc.) 18. Local government. Which of the following countries does not have a unitary system of government? An online press conference by the governor of Shiga Prefecture. Fukushima, 8. Following the capitulation of shogunate Edo in 1868, Tōkyō-fu (an urban prefecture like Kyoto and Osaka) was set up and encompassed the former city area of Edo under the Fuhanken sanchisei. 25. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.. (For example, there was during the occupation a dedicated municipal police agency for the 23 special wards/former Tokyo City, yet the special wards public safety commission was not named by the special ward governments, but by the government of the whole "Metropolis". Local government, authority to determine and execute measures within a restricted area inside and smaller than a whole state. Tōkyō The prefecture level comes under the province level, and in turn oversees the county level. 5. Here are some territories that were lost after World War II. Aichi Prefecture is located almost at the center of Japan. The Meiji government originally classified Hokkaido as a "Settlement Envoyship" (開拓使, kaitakushi), and later divided the island into three prefectures (Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro). These subprefectures still exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed before and during World War II. 21. Highly effective (rating value: 3; weighted rating: 1.05) Efficiency (weight: 0.30) There was a delay in the TA implementation (11 months). Some of these restrictions were removed again over the decades. A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect. Until 1894 Hyeon (현; 縣) was the lowest level administrative division in Korea and can be translated into "Petty Prefecture" in the modern sense. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. Those regions are not formally specified, they do not have elected officials, nor are they corporate bodies. As canon law is strongly inspired by Roman law, it is not surprising that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect. They now exist primarily to handle paperwork and other bureaucratic functions. Ōsaka Its current name is believed to originate from Matsuura Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the island. R.A. 7160 mandates devolution of basic services from the national government to local government units. Local government, authority to determine and execute measures within a restricted area inside and smaller than a whole state. 10. 2 unit of the Onagawa nuclear plant to restart, winning consent from local government leaders is the last required step after it cleared a national safety screening in February. Although there were initially over 300 prefectures, many of them being former han territories, this number was reduced to 72 in the latter part of 1871, and 47 in 1888. A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction traditionally governed by an appointed prefect.This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international church structures, as … Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. But the practice of ordering prefectures based on their geographic region is traditional. The different systems of parsing frame the ways in which Japanese prefectures are perceived: The prefectures are also often grouped into eight regions (Chihō). ... the following table. The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived implies a core urban zone of national importance. The appointment ceremony took place at the Chiba Prefectural Government Office on October 20 th. This was also a historical usage of the character in China. 11. Not all the autonomous areas are part of the formal hierarchy of the administrative division system of a country (for example, the autonomous region of Zanzibar comprises 5 regions of Tanzania, the first tier on administrative divisions on that country). See this Japanese Wikipedia article for all the changes in that period. Kōchi, 40. This is the city where the préfet - the appointed government representative - resides. All of these documents have provided for a National Assembly with a prime minister as head of government. Okayama Although local government expenditure accounts for 70 percent of overall government expenditure, the central government controls local budgets, tax rates, and borrowing. Okinawa. Kanagawa, 15. The central government has made five National Comprehensive Development Plans since 1962 and promoted many relevant policies. The Meiji government established the current system in July 1871 with the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken). Kagawa When the Meiji government began to create the prefectural system in 1868, the nine bugyō-ruled zones became fu (府), while the township-ruled zones and the rest of the bugyo-ruled zones became ken (県). 47. 37.  But, these are not themselves local public entities under the local autonomy law and national or local government functions cannot be directly transferred to them, unlike the "Union of Kansai governments" (Kansai kōiki-rengō) which has been established by several prefectural governments in the Kansai region. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. Kyōto Toyama In 1947, the department was dissolved, and Hokkaido became a full-fledged prefecture. In addition, a city that has a population of at least 500,000 can be given the status of shitei toshi (designated city). unitary system. A préfecture de région is the capital city of a région. World Governments. November 12, 2020 (4:00 – 5:10 PM)----- It called for a careful separation of church and state. Tokyo is referred to as to (都, [toꜜ]), which is often translated as "metropolis". A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. The role of government. Yamagata Prefecture originally refers to a self-governing body or area since the tetrarchy, when Emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into four districts (each divided into dioceses), grouped under a Vicarius (a number of Roman provinces, listed under that article), although he maintained two pretorian prefectures as an administrative level above the also surviving dioceses (a few of which were split). Various ecclesiastical areas, too small for a diocese, are termed prefects. 30. Each nomos was headed by a prefect (νομάρχης, nomarches), who was a ministerial appointee until ca. Miyazaki Prefecture (宮崎県, Miyazaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyūshū. The Soviet Union turned it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955. parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate, a dedicated municipal police agency for the 23 special wards/former Tokyo City, International Organization for Standardization, List of Japanese prefectures by population#Historical demography of prefectures of Japan, List of Japanese prefectures by population, List of Japanese prefectures by GDP per capita, List of Japanese prefectures by Human Development Index, List of Japanese prefectures by life expectancy, List of Japanese prefectures by highest mountain, Few warm to greater-Tokyo assembly idea. 28. This unit of administration is translated as "county" when used in a contemporary context, because of the increase of the number of "xian" and the decrease of their sizes over time in the Chinese history. Which of the following concerning the Texas Constitution of 1836 is not correct? Which of the following countries has a federal system of government? While almost every government since 1932 has accepted constitutional authority, the country has had 17 constitutions, the most recent drafted in 2007. In Italy a prefettura is the office of prefetto; like in France he is the representative of the Government in each provincia. It is a good strategy for the three levels of government to collaborate in developing the MCH Intervention Project. Yamaguchi, 36. Some degree of local government characterizes every country in the world, although the degree is extremely significant. Japan is a unitary state. Historically, during the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established bugyō-ruled zones (奉行支配地) around the nine largest cities in Japan, and 302 township-ruled zones (郡代支配地) elsewhere. Aomori 43 of the 47 prefectures are referred to as ken (県, pronounced [keꜜɴ] when a separate word but [ꜜkeɴ] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. Fukui The West's use of "prefecture" to label these Japanese regions stems from 16th-century Portuguese explorers' and traders' use of "prefeitura" to describe the fiefdoms they encountered there. Hokkaido has 14 subprefectures that act as General Subprefectural Bureaus (総合振興局, sōgō-shinkō-kyoku) and Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局, shinkō-kyoku) of the prefecture. The Local Autonomy Law of 1947 gave more political power to prefectures, and installed prefectural governors and parliaments. Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. Under a set of 1888–1890 laws on local government until the 1920s, each prefecture (then only 3 -fu and 42 -ken; Hokkai-dō and Okinawa-ken were subject to different laws until the 20th century) was subdivided into cities (市, shi) and districts (郡, gun) and each district into towns (町, chō/machi) and villages (村, son/mura). ... A kakistocracy is a government by the worst people in the country. Those fiefs were headed by a local warlord or family. This scenario illustrates the concept of _____. Similar. Shizuoka Tokushima 23. The 2010 Kallikratis plan, which took effect on 1 January 2011, abolished the prefectures as separate administrative units, and transformed them into regional units within the country's thirteen administrative regions. Despite the differences in terminology, there is little functional difference between the four types of local governments. in many policy areas, the basic framework is set tightly by national laws, and prefectures and municipalities are only autonomous within that framework. 33. The following is a brief explanation of these various types, plus a few others thrown in for good measure. This process would reduce the number of subprefecture administrative regions and cut administrative costs. Which of the following is the major goal of devolution? Ehime They are subdivisions of the 12 regions of Morocco. After the abolition of the han system in the first wave of prefectural mergers in 1871/72, several surrounding areas (parts of Urawa, Kosuge, Shinagawa and Hikone prefectures) were merged into Tokyo, and under the system of (numbered) "large districts and small districts" (daiku-shōku), it was subdivided into eleven large districts further subdivided into 103 small districts, six of the large districts (97 small districts) covered the former city area of Edo. They include 43 prefectures (県, ken, [keꜜɴ]) proper, two urban prefectures (府, fu, [ɸɯꜜ]; Osaka and Kyoto), one "circuit" or "territory" (道, dō, [doꜜː]; Hokkaido) and one "metropolis" (都, to, [toꜜ]; Tokyo). These were consolidated into a single Hokkaido Department (北海道庁, Hokkaido-chō) in 1886, at prefectural level but organized more along the lines of a territory. A joint governmental structure for the whole Tokyo metropolitan area (and not only the western suburbs of the special wardswhich are part of the Tokyo prefecture/Metropolis") as advocated by some politicians such as former Kanagawa governor Shigefumi Matsuzawa has not been established (see also Dōshūsei). 13. Ordinances and budgets are enacted by a unicameral assembly (議会, gikai) whose members are elected for four-year terms. Osaka and Kyoto Prefectures are referred to as fu (府, pronounced [ɸɯꜜ] when a separate word but [ꜜɸɯ] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. 26. After the war, Japan was forced to decentralize Tokyo again, following the general terms of democratization outlined in the Potsdam Declaration. All other cities, towns and villages in Tokyo stayed cities, towns and villages in Tokyo. The central government delegates many functions (such as education and the police force) to the prefectures and municipalities, but retains the overall right to control them. Over the past 33 years, it has seen significant growth, from its original 848 participants from 4 countries in 1987, to 5,761 participants from 57 countries at present. Many of Tokyo's special governmental characteristics disappeared during this time, and the wards took on an increasingly municipal status in the decades following the surrender. It has a rich natural environment, and an abundant workforce and human resources; all of them as a whole serve as a base for the well-balanced growth of industry, commerce and agriculture in the prefecture. Though the extent of direct state participation in economic activities is limited, the government’s control and influence over business is stronger and more pervasive than in most other countries with market economies. Since Hokkaido did not fit into the existing dō classifications, a new dō was created to cover it. After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory. Nagasaki Since 1949 neither Hyeon nor Bu have been used, and there has been no division in either the South Korean or North Korean administrative system which translates as "prefecture". It differs from the earlier document in two fundamental ways: the principle of sovereignty and the stated aim of maintaining Japan as a peaceful and democratic country in perpetuity. Mongolian prefectures (Aimags) were adopted during Qing Dynasty's rule. In 1954, independent municipal police forces were abolished generally in the whole country, and the prefectural/"Metropolitan" police of Tokyo is again responsible for the whole prefecture/"Metropolis" and like all prefectural police forces controlled by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" public safety commission whose members are appointed by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" governor and assembly.) Both urban and rural districts, like everywhere in the country, were further subdivided into urban units/towns/neighbourhoods (-chō/-machi) and rural units/villages (-mura/-son). For more details, see List of autonomous areas by country. Imagine that a small coastal country has a flat income tax rate of 20%, and the country's economy generally produces a taxable income of $20 billion. Their responsibilities include tasks delegated to them by the national government such as maintaining most ordinary national roads (except in designated major cities), and prefectures coordinate and support their municipalities in their functions. Kanagawa chief pushes new administrative body to deal with regional issues, United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands, Table of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prefectures_of_Japan&oldid=993318162, First-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, most of them depend heavily on central government funding – a dependency recently further exacerbated in many regions by the demographic transition which hits rural areas harder/earlier as cities can offset it partly through migration from the countryside, and. From 1910 to 1949, the term "prefecture" was used to translate Bu (부; 府). [aꜜitɕi] and [ꜜkeɴ] become [aitɕi̥ꜜkeɴ]). Similar. In the context of Chinese history during or after the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate zhou (Wade–Giles chou (州), another ancient unit of administration in China, equivalent to the modern province. The Legal Status of Local Government 2. 32. Traditionally the prefecture as being the City Hall and the prefect as being the equivalent of a mayor and commissioner until recently; now the prefectures and prefect are analogous with the figure of Town Clerk. Today, since the special wards have almost the same degree of independence as Japanese cities, the difference in administration between Tokyo and other prefectures is fairly minor. 1990, but was then elected by direct popular vote in a process of decentralization that saw the prefectures become local government units. Ukraine, formerly one of the Soviet republics, had its own local unitof government, yet the Soviet Union was not considered a federalsystem. 34. In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département.  The Japanese government also considered a plan to merge several groups of prefectures, creating a subnational administrative division system consisting of between nine and 13 states, and giving these states more local autonomy than the prefectures currently enjoy. Municipal elections in Greece are held every four years and voting for the election of prefects and mayors was carried out concurrently but with separate ballots. 39. india. Japan's Kagawa prefecture will cull 850,000 chickens at two poultry farms after the country detected a bird flu outbreak earlier this month, the local government said in a statement on Friday. Wakayama, 31. [kʲoꜜːto] and [ꜜɸɯ] become [kʲoːtoꜜɸɯ]). The government of Aurelia has been exercising the power to conduct elections for almost a century now. unitary system. While local authorities have implemented diverse measures in line with central government’s policies, they also began actively rolling out independent measures. All these local government units have their own mayors, or chiefs, and assemblies. CHAPTER 1 An Outline of Local Government in Japan Introduction Local government systems and practices vary significantly from country to country; for the most part, however, the main elements are similar. c. It prohibited the president from serving consecutive terms. The capital, Hanyang (Seoul), can sometimes be translated as "Hanseong Prefecture". The Arcadia prefecture as the wide area local government (Nomo's) before the カリクラティス reform (2010) was comprised of 23 following basic local governments (22 D muslin, one キノティタ). Hokkai-dō (北海道, [hokkaꜜidoː]), the only remaining dō today, was not one of the original seven dō (it was known as Ezo in the pre-modern era). Iwate prefecture definition: 1. a political region or local government area in some countries, for example Japan, France, and…. In order to achieve this, 21 foreigners who are living, working, or studying in Chiba have officially been appointed as CHI-BA+KUN Partners. When the modern municipalities – [district-independent] cities and [rural] districts containing towns and villages – were introduced under the Yamagata-Mosse laws on local government and the simultaneous Great Meiji merger was performed in 1889, the 15 -ku became wards of Tokyo City, initially Tokyo's only independent city (-shi), the six rural districts of Tokyo were consolidated in 85 towns and villages. Japan’s system of economic management is probably without parallel in the world. Mie 27. Mochida, "Local Government Organization and Finance: Japan", in. : any one of the areas into which some countries (such as Japan and France) are divided for local government : the area that is governed by a prefect See the full definition for prefecture in the English Language Learners Dictionary There are some differences in terminology between Tokyo and other prefectures: police and fire departments are called chō (庁) instead of honbu (本部), for instance. The country decides to develop its infrastructure to boost the country's tourist trade. cercle), municipalities (communes, sing. commune) or urban municipalities (communes urbaines, sing. In other words, Japan is included in the top 10 countries that prioritize economic improvement through the tourism sector. (In Korea, this historical usage is still used today and was kept during the period of Japanese rule.). The plan was narrowly defeated in a 2015 referendum, though a second referendum is currently planned for autumn 2020. 17. 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For four-year terms calls itself the `` Hokkaido Prefectural government office on October 20 th original sense Portuguese! AꜜItɕi ] and [ ꜜɸɯ ] become [ aitɕi̥ꜜkeɴ ] ), which are the main subdivisions of the regions.