Consumer laws in Pakistan. Chemicals such as chemically synthesized ethylene, methyl jasmonate, calcium carbide, ethephon, and ethylene glycol can also be used to replicate this process artificially [1, 5, 7, 18]. Affairs, Editor. Kingdom, Editor. Artificial ripening of fruits by acetylene gas, commonly known as carbide gas is prohibited as per the provisions in the sub-regulation 2.3.5 of the Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restrictions on Sales) Regulation, 2011. 2014. http://www.punchng.com. Singal S, Kumud M, Thakral S. Application of apple as ripening agent for banana. Production of complex mixture of volatile compounds, such as ocimene and myrcene, and degradation of bitter principles (diverse groups of plant constituents such as alkaloid and sesquiterpene are linked only by their bitter taste), flavonoids, tannins, and other related compounds enhance the flavor and aroma of the fruit. Act of The Republic of Indonesia No. Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology.. WHO/FAO. Food Safety and Standards Act, M.O.L.A. Shen W, Urquhart R. Inkjet ink and paper Interaction. Artificial ripening of fruits is done to achieve faster and more uniform ripening characteristics at the cost of its Nutritional Values. Acetylene produced from CaC 2 comprises phosphine and arsenic up to 95 and 3 ppm, respectively (Siddiqui and Dhua, 2010, Maduwanthi and Marapana, 2019). For example, in the fiscal year 2006â2007 Bangladesh produced around 2.74 million metric tons of fruits . And for that, all that a trader has to do is to wrap a small quantity of Calcium Carbide in a packet of paper and keep this packet near a pile or box of fruits. Hakim MA, et al. 1. a. In India, the use of carbide gas for fruit ripening is prohibited under Rule 44 AA of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules 1955 . ( 4), that he had any knowledge of the use of ethylene as an agent for ripening fruits. Ethylene, a hormone naturally produced within fruit, regulates fruit ripening by initiating and/or controlling a series of chemical and biochemical activities ; the compound does so by coordinating the genes responsible for activities including increase in the rate of respiration, autocatalytic ethylene production, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid synthesis alongside conversion of starch to sugar, increased activity of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, color change, texture, aroma, and flavor of the fruit [29, 30]. Giacomini DG. Glob J Biotechnol Biochem. Calcium carbide is a known carcinogen, a cancer-producing chemical. Although this catalog does not address the use of artificial fruit ripening agents, the EAC countries, however, can add a list of banned ripening agents so that there is a single regulation that can address artificial fruit ripening within the region. Terms and Conditions, volumeÂ 5, ArticleÂ number:Â 8 (2016) There are a number of processing techniques that can be employed to fresh-treat fruit and vegetables: irra- diation, a wax coating, an ethylene inhibitor (ethylene is a plant hormone that causes ripening), controlled atmos- phere packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, and the use of a chemical inhibitive. ArticleÂ Fruit ripening process can also be stimulated by applying artificial fruit ripening agents. Although most cases of arsenic and phosphorus poisoning are detected before they become fatal, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable as the chemical residue in the fruit could lead to miscarriage. A product failing a previous inspection will be thoroughly examined on subsequent shipments for an undisclosed length of time. Artificial fruit ripening is a complex issue, especially for the developing countries, where farmers apply unregulated artificial ripening techniques to satisfy local and international demand. Theologis A. In: Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA, editors. Lot of chemicals like colors, artificial ripening agents, sweeteners and waxes are applied on surface of horticulture produce to siphon off money from consumers, and these have adverse health effects directly or indirectly. 2012, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM).