Water that attracted prey, and not the vegetation density in riverine areas, increased predation risk, with kills of buffalo (Syncerus caffer), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) as water-dependent prey species. Map of the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve showing the lion kill locations (x), the Olifants and Klaserie rivers, and the distribution of the artificial water points and catchment dams (◯). Seasonal differences also affect the distribution of lion kills (Lehmann et al. Lions have long been killed in rituals of bravery, as hunting trophies and for their medicinal and magical powers. Traits of prey species, including feeding type (food habits), digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant); or body size, did not explain locations of lion kills, and no seasonal patterns in lion kills were apparent. Differences in prey selection (Jacobs index) could not be explained by the water dependency of the species (odds-ratio: rs = −0.123, n = 12, P > 0.05) or the density of the species (rs = −0.212, n = 12, P > 0.05). 2006). Thus, our study shows that prey availability is more important than prey vulnerability, consistent with the predictions of Ogutu and Dublin (2004) and inconsistent with the findings of Hopcraft et al. 2005). In the most comprehensive analysis, Hopcraft et al. In Cameroon, the water sector is managed by the Ministry of Water Resources and Energy. 2008). We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. For each location of a lion kill the shortest (straight-line) distance between that location and the nearest artificial and natural water point was calculated using ArcGIS (version 9.2; ESRI Inc., Redlands, California). The table below shows the main public actors of the sector. Prey species are attracted to water, and lions exploit this nonrandom distribution. Moran's I measures the autocorrelation between paired observations in relation to the distance (the “lag” distance) between these observations. Mangroves grow along the coasts and at the mouths of rivers. The Klaserie River runs through the area and Olifants River forms the northern boundary of the conservation area. However, artificial water points had, as expected, significantly lower NDVI values than riverine locations (Z = −7.941, nl and n2 = 117, P < 0.001). Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. The male lions have a long mane of hair covering their neck. Kalahari Lion The Kalahari lion is a sub-species that behaves and looks different from other lions as a result of its adaptation to the Kalahari environment. However, you will notice that the Bushmen people (also known as the San people), have found a great way to adapt to the harsh environment. Photo: Flickr. The lions of the Kalahari Desert have become a popular interest and in researching the behaviour of this specific group, it has become clear that they are well defined from their relatives residing in more “moderate” environments, such as the safe havens of South African Game Reserves. 1995). 2003). Operating eight water bowsers, five of which have a capacity of 20,000 litres, we have the ability to rapidly transport 124,000 litres of water at any one time. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995; Winnie et al. Matson also writes about his experiencs in his monthly column, “Boyd Matson Unbound” for, The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. They fill small basins at the base of trees or or in natural depressions in the landscape with rainwater or snow melt. Several studies show that female lions (Panthera leo) generally take medium-sized species such as plains zebra (Equus burchellii) and blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), whereas males prey on larger species such as African buffalo (Syncerus caffer—Funston et al. 2005; Valeix et al. 2008; Mills et al. He even wrote a book about his adventures titled The Man-Eaters of Tsavo, published in 1907. Filling up the bowsers from our network of boreholes or rivers, we bring some relief to drought-stricken areas and places of importance to wildlife. The Kalahari Desert is no exception. Prey composition depended on the distance to the nearest water point (χ26 = 13.84, P < 0.05; Table 2), with buffalo, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest taken relatively closer to water. Exploits are often the first part of a larger attack. British Geological Survey. Box plots show ranges (whiskers), 25% and 75% quartiles (boxes), and medians. Water Use in Cameroon Total, by Sector, and by Year. 2008). Type of water source (natural or artificial) or random point was included as a fixed factor, together with several other fixed factors—feeding type, digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant), and season—and the covariates body mass and water dependency. Learn about all the amazing animals in Cameroon. 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007; Schmitz et al. Lions found in south Cameroon forest, far from their known range. The dependent variable was positively skewed; therefore, a gamma distribution with a log-link was used. An ongoing debate exists about the importance of landscape elements, such as erosion gullies, river confluences, kopjes (small rocky hills), and proximity to water, each with different structure and vegetation cover that influence predation risk (Balme et al. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Winnie et al. Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. (2005) showed that certain landscape elements increase prédation risk: prey vulnerability is more important to lions than prey availability. People with no access to a safe drinking water source in Zambia. Carpenter S. R. Brock W. A. Cole J. J. Kitchell J. F. Pace M. L.. Creel S. Winnie J.Jr. A Pearson chi-square method was used to calculate the scale parameter, and a sequential Sidak method was used in the multiple comparison tests (Hardin and Hilbe 2007). The pools go by a variety of names: prairie potholes, whale wallows, hog wallows, sinks, and kettles. Hence, prey body mass is a major factor influencing prey selection by lions (Hayward and Kerley 2005). Well one has to take into account when these amazing predators are most active and that would be early morning or late afternoon. Thus, kills are expected to be found farther from water points in the wet season than in the dry season. The lions have learnt to thrive there - mainly due to the large buffalo population. Since 1888, National Geographic has pushed the boundaries of exploration, investing in bold people and transformative ideas, providing more than 14,000 grants for work across all seven continents, reaching 3 million students each year through education offerings, and engaging audiences around the globe through signature experiences, stories and content. The northern province in Cameroon, Bénoué, hosts the largest hippo population in the entire West-Central region of Africa. We found that lion predation pressure is not distributed uniformly over the area but is higher closer to water holes. Moreover, it has been found that grazers are more associated with artificial water holes and browsers and mixed feeders with natural water sources (Smit et al. Some efforts being made to better Cameroon’s water quality have proven to be successful. The demarcation between these 2 groups (5.3 km; Table 2) was chosen so that sample sizes for the groups were equal. We thank the staff of Klaserie Nature Reserve for assisting with data collection. 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Hayward et al. 2005). Lions get their water like most other savanna mammals, relying on watering holes and temporary pools to hydrate. Composition of prey differed significantly (P < 0.01) from availability. Sometimes the shrimpers operate off the Sanaga River. 2009; Sinclair 2003), might have a keystone role in the composition of savanna systems (Van Langevelde et al. 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). S.. Smit I. P. J. The clustering in space of the lion kill locations was tested in ArcGIS, using a Z-test on the average nearest-neighbor distance between lion kills. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? Diniz-Filho J. Work of the lion is to provide protection to the territory while the lionesses hunt. 34.6 % of the population of Zambia (2015) See also. 2008; Mills et al. Seasonal Water Sources. This also might explain why we did not find the seasonal pattern in lion kills documented in other studies (Patterson et al. 2008), their density, spatial distribution, and habitat selection (Creel et al. Seventy-seven artificial water points and 40 catchment dams provide drinking water over the entire year, over an area of 579 km2, so temporal fluctuations in water availability are not significant. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). Data analysis was done in ArcGIS, selecting only those grid cells (15 × 15 m) where lion kills or random points were located. Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). Redfern et al. 2003). An index of the vegetation density, and thereby for stalking opportunities of lions, was obtained using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 19 February 2006, in the middle of the rainy season, from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER; https://lpdaac.usgs.gov, accessed 2 June 2009). 2007), but feeding type was not related to the type of the water source that was closest to the kill site. Our finding that lion kills are closer to water than expected on the basis of a random distribution could affect not only prey distribution (Valeix et al. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). Number of reported kills by lions of prey species that comprise >5% of all reported kills (see Table 1), estimated prey population sizes from 2002 to 2006 surveys, and the expected number of prey killed calculated from the survey proportions, in the Klaserie Nature Reserve. We demonstrated that it was not vegetation density around natural water sources that increases predation risk for prey species but the actual presence of water, which was attracting prey species (Redfern et al. In total, 215 lion kills were found from July 2002 to May 2007 (Fig. 2005). Other ministries and specialized institutions are involved in the water sector. Lion kills were closer to rivers and to artificial water points than expected by random distribution of the kills. (2003); the lower the value, the lower the chance of finding the species far from water sources. Kills were classified with respect to feeding type (Table 1), digestion type, and body mass. The question remains whether the locations of lion kills are influenced by the availability of water sources, and if this effect is due to the attraction of wildlife to water and hence the higher prey densities there, or if it is caused by the increased cover for stalking lions around these water sources. When lion kills were encountered—identified by the presence of lions or lion tracks at the kill site—they were recorded by Klaserie staff members in a central database; data recorded included date, location (global positioning system coordinates), and species. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C. Richardson P. R. K.. Hayward M. W. O'Brien J. Hofmeyr M. Kerley G. I. H.. Hopcraft J. G. C. Sinclair A. R. E. Packer C.. Lehmann M. B. Funston P. J. Owen C. R. Slotow R.. Palomares F. Delibes M. Revilla E. Calzada J. Fedriani J. M.. Patterson B. D. Kasiki S. M. Selempo E. Kays R. W.. Rangel T.F.L.V.B. (2003), who also found no relationship between the distribution of prey and these traits. Expected values were calculated based on the average of the annual abundance estimates for each prey species from aerial surveys carried out between 2002 and 2006. In order to find water in the Kalahari Desert, they use a specific root called the “bi! Sightings of Lion in the Hluhluwe Umfolozi vary according to various factors. Prey composition deviated significantly from prey availability (χ26 = 562.32, P < 0.001; Table 2) for prey species that comprised >5% of potential prey numbers. Malware exploits these vulnerabilities to bypass your computer's security safeguards to infect your device. Buffalo, zebra, and wildebeest modify their activity patterns and habitat use in relation to lion predation risk (Fischhoff et al. 2003), and can thereby trigger ecosystem cascades (Carpenter et al. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cameroon 2003). Lion kills of elephant (Loxodonta africana) were never recorded in Klaserie. 1). We have empowered, educated and inspired. Browsing and grazing species, especially impala (Prins and Van Der Jeugd 1993) or wildebeest (Holdo et al. The last column was calculated from the distance to water odds-ratio taken from Redfern et al. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C.. Funston P. J. We found that lion kills in Klaserie were located closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of kills. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). Vernal pools are a type of wetlands - sometimes resembling larger puddles. They are not connected to any other water source. In this ministry there are two departments in charge of water: one for management and the other for the mobilization of water resources. We have dug wells, drilled boreholes and built a water purification plant. The herd size and structure, behavior, and time of drinking by prey, and the presence of other herbivores are important factors in decreasing predation risk when drinking (Valeix et al. These results indicate that water was the major factor influencing lion prey choice and prey location, and that vegetation cover was unimportant in the selection of the kill site at the scale measured by ASTER. To learn more, visit. Surface water is constantly replenished through precipitation, and lost through evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies. Exploits take advantage of vulnerabilities in software. Moreover, impacts of lion predation differ among prey species, with medium-sized species being selected (Owen-Smith and Mills 2008; Sinclair et al. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. Always try and be in the park as early as possible as this will undoubtedly help in you getting that sighting. Study area.—To test these hypotheses we analyzed the spatial distribution of lion kills in Klaserie Private Nature Reserve in South Africa (24.203°S, 31.179°E), which forms part of the Associated Private Nature Reserve abutting and contiguous with the Kruger National Park. Valeix et al. LION WALKS Due to increasing controversy about the ethics of lion walks and certain other "animal encounter" activities and the practices of those offering them within the Victoria Falls area, Zambiatourism.com will no longer be featuring such activities. 1998, 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Lehmann et al. Some plants increase their water content by 25 to 40 percent, so when the gemsbok feed late at night or early in the morning, the plants provide them with both food and water. The country has a vast network of rivers within its diverse and numerous climatic regions. Difference in vegetation density is not an important feature to distinguish kill sites at this scale of analysis. Water-dependent and water-independent species are found at different positions in the landscape, with water-dependent species closer to water (Redfern et al. These forests provide a source of livelihoods for communities and habitat for over 9,000 plant species, about 900 bird species, and roughly 320 mammals — including the critically endangered western lowland gorilla and the endangered chimpanzee. 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